Title & Authors Journal Publication Date

Structural basis of glycan276-dependent recognition by HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies

Cottrell CA, Manne K, Kong R, Wang S, Zhou T, Chuang GY, Edwards RJ, Henderson R, Janowska K, Kopp M, Lin BC, Louder MK, Olia AS, Rawi R, Shen CH, Taft JD, Torres JL, Wu NR, Zhang B, Doria-Rose NA, Cohen MS, Haynes BF, Shapiro L, Ward AB, Acharya P, Mascola JR, Kwong PD.
Cell Reports Nov. 2, 2021

Recognition of N-linked glycan at residue N276 (glycan276) at the periphery of the CD4-binding site (CD4bs) on the HIV-envelope trimer is a formidable challenge for many CD4bs-directed antibodies. To understand how this glycan can be recognized, here we isolate two lineages of glycan276-dependent CD4bs antibodies. Antibody CH540-VRC40.01 (named for donor-lineage.clone) neutralizes 81% of a panel of 208 diverse strains, while antibody CH314-VRC33.01 neutralizes 45%. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of these two antibodies and 179NC75, a previously identified glycan276-dependent CD4bs antibody, in complex with HIV-envelope trimer reveal substantially different modes of glycan276 recognition. Despite these differences, binding of glycan276-dependent antibodies maintains a glycan276 conformation similar to that observed in the absence of glycan276-binding antibodies. By contrast, glycan276-independent CD4bs antibodies, such as VRC01, displace glycan276 upon binding. These results provide a foundation for understanding antibody recognition of glycan276 and suggest its presence may be crucial for priming immunogens seeking to initiate broad CD4bs recognition.

Pan-ebolavirus protective therapy by two multifunctional human antibodies

Gilchuk P, Murin CD, Cross RW, Ilinykh PA, Huang K, Kuzmina N, Borisevich V, Agans KN, Geisbert JB, Zost SJ, Nargi RS, Sutton RE, Suryadevara N, Bombardi RG, Carnahan RH, Bukreyev A, Geisbert TW, Ward AB, Crowe JE Jr.
Cell Oct. 28, 2021

Ebolaviruses cause a severe and often fatal illness with the potential for global spread. Monoclonal antibody-based treatments that have become available recently have a narrow therapeutic spectrum and are ineffective against ebolaviruses other than Ebola virus (EBOV), including medically important Bundibugyo (BDBV) and Sudan (SUDV) viruses. Here, we report the development of a therapeutic cocktail comprising two broadly neutralizing human antibodies, rEBOV-515 and rEBOV-442, that recognize non-overlapping sites on the ebolavirus glycoprotein (GP). Antibodies in the cocktail exhibited synergistic neutralizing activity, resisted viral escape, and possessed differing requirements for their Fc-regions for optimal in vivo activities. The cocktail protected non-human primates from ebolavirus disease caused by EBOV, BDBV, or SUDV with high therapeutic effectiveness. High-resolution structures of the cocktail antibodies in complex with GP revealed the molecular determinants for neutralization breadth and potency. This study provides advanced preclinical data to support clinical development of this cocktail for pan-ebolavirus therapy.

The Glycan Hole Area of HIV-1 Envelope Trimers Contributes Prominently to the Induction of Autologous Neutralization

Schorcht A, Cottrell CA, Pugach P, Ringe RP, Han AX, Allen JD, van den Kerkhof TLGM, Seabright GE, Schermer EE, Ketas TJ, Burger JA, van Schooten J, LaBranche CC, Ozorowski G, de Val N, Bader DLV, Schuitemaker H, Russell CA, Montefiori DC, van Gils MJ, Crispin M, Klasse PJ, Ward AB, Moore JP, Sanders RW.
Journal of Virology Oct. 20, 2021

The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) trimeric envelope glycoprotein (Env) is heavily glycosylated, creating a dense glycan shield that protects the underlying peptidic surface from antibody recognition. The absence of conserved glycans, due to missing potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS), can result in strain-specific, autologous neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses. Here, we sought to gain a deeper understanding of the autologous neutralization by introducing holes in the otherwise dense glycan shields of the AMC011 and AMC016 SOSIP trimers. Specifically, when we knocked out the N130 and N289 glycans, which are absent from the well-characterized B41 SOSIP trimer, we observed stronger autologous NAb responses. We also analyzed the highly variable NAb responses induced in rabbits by diverse SOSIP trimers from subtypes A, B, and C. Statistical analysis, using linear regression, revealed that the cumulative area exposed on a trimer by glycan holes correlates with the magnitude of the autologous NAb response. IMPORTANCE Forty years after the first description of HIV-1, the search for a protective vaccine is still ongoing. The sole target for antibodies that can neutralize the virus are the trimeric envelope glycoproteins (Envs) located on the viral surface. The glycoprotein surface is covered with glycans that shield off the underlying protein components from recognition by the immune system. However, the Env trimers of some viral strains have holes in the glycan shield. Immunized animals developed antibodies against such glycan holes. These antibodies are generally strain specific. Here, we sought to gain a deeper understanding of what drives these specific immune responses. First, we show that strain-specific neutralizing antibody responses can be increased by creating artificial holes in the glycan shield. Second, when studying a diverse set of Env trimers with different characteristics, we found that the surface area of the glycan holes contributes prominently to the induction of strain-specific neutralizing antibodies.

Broad and potent HIV-1 neutralization by a human antibody that binds the gp41-120 interface

Huang J, Kang BH, Pancera M, Lee JH, Tong T, Feng Y, Imamichi H, Georgiev IS, Chuang GY, Druz A, Doria-Rose NA, Laub L, Sliepen K, van Gils MJ, de la Pena AT, Derking R, Klasse PJ, Migueles SA, Bailer RT, Alam M, Pugach P, Haynes BF, Wyatt RT, Sanders RW, Binley JM, Ward AB, Mascola JR, Kwong PD, Connors M
Nature Oct. 20, 2021

The isolation of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is providing important insights regarding the specificities that underlie broad neutralization of HIV-1 (reviewed in1). Here we report a broad and extremely potent HIV-specific mAb, termed 35O22, which binds novel HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) epitope. 35O22 neutralized 62% of 181 pseudoviruses with an IC50<50 μg/ml. The median IC50 of neutralized viruses was 0.033 μg/ml, among the most potent thus far described. 35O22 did not bind monomeric forms of Env tested, but did bind the trimeric BG505 SOSIP.664. Mutagenesis and a reconstruction by negative-stain electron microscopy of the Fab in complex with trimer revealed it to bind a conserved epitope, which stretched across gp120 and gp41. The specificity of 35O22 represents a novel site of vulnerability on HIV Env, which serum analysis indicates to be commonly elicited by natural infection. Binding to this new site of vulnerability may thus be an important complement to current mAb-based approaches to immunotherapies, prophylaxis, and vaccine design.

One dose of COVID-19 nanoparticle vaccine REVC-128 protects against SARS-CoV-2 challenge at two weeks post-immunization

Gu M, Torres JL, Li Y, Ry AV, Greenhouse J, Wallace S, Chiang CI, Pessaint L, Jackson AM, Porto M, Kar S, Li Y, Ward AB, Wang Y.
Emerging Microbes & Infections Oct. 15, 2021

A COVID-19 vaccine that can give early protection is needed to eliminate the viral spread efficiently. Here, we demonstrate the development of a nanoparticle vaccine candidate, REVC-128, in which multiple trimeric spike ectodomains with glycine (G) at position 614 were multimerized onto a nanoparticle. In-vitro characterization of this vaccine confirms its structural and antigenic integrity. In-vivo immunogenicity evaluation in mice indicates that a single dose of this vaccine induces potent serum neutralizing antibody titre at two weeks post-immunization. This is significantly higher than titre caused by trimeric spike protein without nanoparticle presentation. The comparison of serum binding to spike subunits between animals immunized by a spike with and without nanoparticle presentation indicates that nanoparticle prefers the display of spike RBD (Receptor-Binding Domain) over S2 subunit, likely resulting in a more neutralizing but less cross-reactive antibody response. Moreover, a Syrian golden hamster in-vivo model for the SARS-CoV-2 virus challenge was implemented two weeks post a single dose of REVC-128 immunization. The results showed that vaccination protects hamsters against the SARS-CoV-2 virus challenge with evidence of steady body weight, suppressed viral loads and alleviation of tissue damage for protected animals, compared with ∼10% weight loss, high viral loads and tissue damage in unprotected animals. Furthermore, the data showed that vaccine REVC-128 is thermostable at up to 37°C for at least 4 weeks. These findings, along with a history of safety for protein vaccines, suggest that the REVC-128 is a safe, stable and efficacious single-shot vaccine to give the earliest protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Human germinal centres engage memory and naïve B cells after influenza vaccination

Turner JS, Zhou JQ, Han J, Schmitz AJ, Rizk AA, Alsoussi WB, Lei T, Amor M, McIntire KM, Meade P, Strohmeier S, Brent RI, Richey ST, Haile A, Yang YR, Klebert MK, Suessen T, Teefey S, Presti RM, Krammer F, Kleinstein SH, Ward AB, Ellebedy AH.
Nature Oct. 8, 2021

Influenza viruses remain a major public health threat. Seasonal influenza vaccination in humans primarily stimulates pre-existing memory B cells, leading to a transient wave of circulating antibody-secreting plasmablasts1–3. This recall response contributes to “original antigenic sin,” the selective boosting of antibody specificities from prior exposures to influenza virus antigens4. It remains unclear whether such vaccination can also induce germinal centre (GC) reactions in the draining lymph node (LN) where diversification and maturation of recruited B cells can occur5. Here we used ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration to serially sample the draining LNs and investigate the dynamics and specificity of GC B cell responses after influenza vaccination in humans. We show that influenza vaccine-binding GC B cells can be detected as early as 1 week after vaccination. In 3 out of 8 participants, we detected vaccine-binding GC B cells up to 9 weeks after vaccination. Between 12% and 88% of the responding GC B cell clones overlapped with those detected among early circulating plasmablasts. These shared B cell clones had high frequencies of somatic hypermutation (SHM) and encoded broadly cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). In contrast, vaccine-induced B cell clones detected only in the GC compartment exhibited significantly lower SHM frequencies and predominantly encoded strain-specific mAbs, suggesting a naïve B cell origin. Electron microscopy-based epitope mapping revealed that some of these strain-specific mAbs recognized epitopes that were not targeted by the early plasmablast response. Our results indicate that influenza virus vaccination of humans can elicit a GC reaction to which B cell clones targeting novel epitopes are more likely to be recruited, thereby broadening the spectrum of vaccine-induced protective antibodies against this rapidly mutating pathogen.

Antibody responses induced by SHIV infection are more focused than those induced by soluble native HIV-1 envelope trimers in non-human primates

van Schooten J, van Haaren MM, Li H, McCoy LE, Havenar-Daughton C, Cottrell CA, Burger JA, van der Woude P, Helgers LC, Tomris I, Labranche CC, Montefiori DC, Ward AB, Burton DR, Moore JP, Sanders RW, Crotty S, Shaw GM, van Gils MJ.
PLoS Pathogens Aug. 25, 2021

The development of an effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) vaccine is a high global health priority. Soluble native-like HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers (Env), including those based on the SOSIP design, have shown promise as vaccine candidates by inducing neutralizing antibody responses against the autologous virus in animal models. However, to overcome HIV-1’s extreme diversity a vaccine needs to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). Such bNAbs can protect non-human primates (NHPs) and humans from infection. The prototypic BG505 SOSIP.664 immunogen is based on the BG505 env sequence isolated from an HIV-1-infected infant from Kenya who developed a bNAb response. Studying bNAb development during natural HIV-1 infection can inform vaccine design, however, it is unclear to what extent vaccine-induced antibody responses to Env are comparable to those induced by natural infection. Here, we compared Env antibody responses in BG505 SOSIP-immunized NHPs with those in BG505 SHIV-infected NHPs, by analyzing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We observed three major differences between BG505 SOSIP immunization and BG505 SHIV infection. First, SHIV infection resulted in more clonal expansion and less antibody diversity compared to SOSIP immunization, likely because of higher and/or prolonged antigenic stimulation and increased antigen diversity during infection. Second, while we retrieved comparatively fewer neutralizing mAbs (NAbs) from SOSIP-immunized animals, these NAbs targeted more diverse epitopes compared to NAbs from SHIV-infected animals. However, none of the NAbs, either elicited by vaccination or infection, showed any breadth. Finally, SOSIP immunization elicited antibodies against the base of the trimer, while infection did not, consistent with the base being placed onto the virus membrane in the latter setting. Together these data provide new insights into the antibody response against BG505 Env during infection and immunization and limitations that need to be overcome to induce better responses after vaccination.

Antibodies from Rabbits Immunized with HIV-1 Clade B SOSIP Trimers Can Neutralize Multiple Clade B Viruses by Destabilizing the Envelope Glycoprotein

van Haaren MM, McCoy LE, Torres JL, Lee W, Cottrell CA, Copps JL, van der Woude P, Yasmeen A, de Taeye SW, Torrents de la Peña A, Moore JP, Burton DR, Klasse PJ, Ward AB, Sanders RW, van Gils MJ.
Journal of Virology Aug. 10, 2021

The high viral diversity of HIV-1 is a formidable hurdle for the development of an HIV-1 vaccine. Elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) would offer a solution, but so far immunization strategies have failed to efficiently elicit bNAbs. To overcome these obstacles, it is important to understand the immune responses elicited by current HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) immunogens. To gain more insight, we characterized monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) isolated from rabbits immunized with Env SOSIP trimers based on the clade B isolate AMC008. Four rabbits that were immunized three times with AMC008 trimer developed robust autologous and sporadic low-titer heterologous neutralizing responses. Seventeen AMC008 trimer-reactive MAbs were isolated using antigen-specific single B-cell sorting. Four of these MAbs neutralized the autologous AMC008 virus and several other clade B viruses. When visualized by electron microscopy, the complex of the neutralizing MAbs with the AMC008 trimer showed binding to the gp41 subunit with unusual approach angles, and we observed that their neutralization ability depended on their capacity to induce Env trimer dissociation. Thus, AMC008 SOSIP trimer immunization induced clade B-neutralizing MAbs with unusual approach angles with neutralizing effects that involve trimer destabilization. Optimizing these responses might provide an avenue to the induction of trimer-dissociating bNAbs. IMPORTANCE Roughly 32 million people have died as a consequence of HIV-1 infection since the start of the epidemic, and 1.7 million people still get infected with HIV-1 annually. Therefore, a vaccine to prevent HIV-1 infection is urgently needed. Current HIV-1 immunogens are not able to elicit the broad immune responses needed to provide protection against the large variation of HIV-1 strains circulating globally. A better understanding of the humoral immune responses elicited by immunization with state-of-the-art HIV-1 immunogens should facilitate the design of improved HIV-1 vaccine candidates. We identified antibodies with the ability to neutralize multiple HIV-1 viruses by destabilization of the envelope glycoprotein. Their weak but consistent cross-neutralization ability indicates the potential of this epitope to elicit broad responses. The trimer-destabilizing effect of the neutralizing MAbs, combined with detailed characterization of the neutralization epitope, can be used to shape the next generation of HIV-1 immunogens to elicit improved humoral responses after vaccination.

Polyclonal antibody responses to HIV Env immunogens resolved using cryoEM

Antanasijevic A, Sewall LM, Cottrell CA, Carnathan DG, Jimenez LE, Ngo JT, Silverman JB, Groschel B, Georgeson E, Bhiman J, Bastidas R, LaBranche C, Allen JD, Copps J, Perrett HR, Rantalainen K, Cannac F, Yang YR, de la Peña AT, Rocha RF, Berndsen ZT, Baker D, King NP, Sanders RW, Moore JP, Crotty S, Crispin M, Montefiori DC, Burton DR, Schief WR, Silvestri G, Ward AB.
Nature Communications Aug. 10, 2021

Engineered ectodomain trimer immunogens based on BG505 envelope glycoprotein are widely utilized as components of HIV vaccine development platforms. In this study, we used rhesus macaques to evaluate the immunogenicity of several stabilized BG505 SOSIP constructs both as free trimers and presented on a nanoparticle. We applied a cryoEM-based method for high-resolution mapping of polyclonal antibody responses elicited in immunized animals (cryoEMPEM). Mutational analysis coupled with neutralization assays were used to probe the neutralization potential at each epitope. We demonstrate that cryoEMPEM data can be used for rapid, high-resolution analysis of polyclonal antibody responses without the need for monoclonal antibody isolation. This approach allowed to resolve structurally distinct classes of antibodies that bind overlapping sites. In addition to comprehensive mapping of commonly targeted neutralizing and non-neutralizing epitopes in BG505 SOSIP immunogens, our analysis revealed that epitopes comprising engineered stabilizing mutations and of partially occupied glycosylation sites can be immunogenic. Here, the authors present cryoEMPEM, a method for high-resolution structural analysis of vaccine-elicited polyclonal antibody responses. They apply cryoEMPEM in combination with standard serology experiments to characterize the polyclonal antibody (pAb) responses elicited in rhesus macaques by HIV Env trimer immunogens and were able to determine up to 8 different polyclonal antibody structures in complex with their respective antigen from a single cryoEM dataset.

Capturing the inherent structural dynamics of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein fusion peptide

Kumar S, Sarkar A, Pugach P, Sanders RW, Moore JP, Ward AB, Wilson IA.
Nature Communications Aug. 2, 2021

The N-terminal fusion peptide (FP) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp41 subunit plays a critical role in cell entry. However, capturing the structural flexibility in the unbound FP is challenging in the native Env trimer. Here, FP conformational isomerism is observed in two crystal structures of a soluble clade B transmitted/founder virus B41 SOSIP.664 Env with broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) PGT124 and 35O22 to aid in crystallization and that are not specific for binding to the FP. Large rearrangements in the FP and fusion peptide proximal region occur around M530, which remains anchored in the tryptophan clasp (gp41 W623, W628, W631) in the B41 Env prefusion state. Further, we redesigned the FP at position 518 to reinstate the bNAb VRC34.01 epitope. These findings provide further structural evidence for the dynamic nature of the FP and how a bNAb epitope can be restored during vaccine design.

Discoveries in structure and physiology of mechanically activated ion channels

Kefauver JM, Ward AB, Patapoutian A.
Nature July 28, 2021

The ability to sense physical forces is conserved across all organisms. Cells convert mechanical stimuli into electrical or chemical signals via mechanically activated ion channels. In recent years, the identification of new families of mechanosensitive ion channels—such as PIEZO and OSCA/TMEM63 channels—along with surprising insights into well-studied mechanosensitive channels have driven further developments in the mechanotransduction field. Several well-characterized mechanosensory roles such as touch, blood-pressure sensing and hearing are now linked with primary mechanotransducers. Unanticipated roles of mechanical force sensing continue to be uncovered. Furthermore, high-resolution structures representative of nearly every family of mechanically activated channel described so far have underscored their diversity while advancing our understanding of the biophysical mechanisms of pressure sensing. Here we summarize recent discoveries in the physiology and structures of known mechanically activated ion channel families and discuss their implications for understanding the mechanisms of mechanical force sensing. This Review summarizes developments in the field of mechanically activated ion channels, which have been driven by the increasing breadth of structural studies.

Murine Monoclonal Antibodies against the Receptor Binding Domain of SARS-CoV-2 Neutralize Authentic Wild-Type SARS-CoV-2 as Well as B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 Viruses and Protect In Vivo in a Mouse Model in a Neutralization-Dependent Manner

Amanat F, Strohmeier S, Lee WH, Bangaru S, Ward AB, Coughlan L, Krammer F.
mBio July 27, 2021

After first emerging in late 2019 in China, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has since caused a pandemic leading to millions of infections and deaths worldwide. Vaccines have been developed and authorized, but the supply of these vaccines is currently limited. With new variants of the virus now emerging and spreading globally, it is essential to develop therapeutics that are broadly protective and bind conserved epitopes in the receptor binding domain (RBD) or the full-length spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we generated mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against different epitopes on the RBD and assessed binding and neutralization of authentic SARS-CoV-2. We demonstrate that antibodies with neutralizing activity, but not nonneutralizing antibodies, lower viral titers in the lungs when administered in a prophylactic setting in vivo in a mouse challenge model. In addition, most of the MAbs cross-neutralize the B.1.351 as well as the B.1.1.7 variant in vitro.

Title & Authors Journal Publication Date

Molecular insights into antibody-mediated protection against the prototypic simian immunodeficiency virus

Zhao F, Berndsen ZT, Pedreño-Lopez N, Burns A, Allen JD, Barman S, Lee WH, Chakraborty S, Gnanakaran S, Sewall LM, Ozorowski G, Limbo O, Song G, Yong P, Callaghan S, Weisgrau KL, Lifson JD, Nedellec R, Voigt TB, Laurino F, Louw J, Rosen BC, Ricciardi M, Crispin M, Desrosiers RC, Rakasz EG, Watkins DI, Andrabi R, Ward AB, Burton DR, Sok D

Now Published: 10.1038/s41467-022-32783-2
bioRxiv Dec. 22, 2021

Long-lasting germinal center responses to a priming immunization with continuous proliferation and somatic mutation

Lee JH, Sutton H, Cottrell CA, Phung I, Ozorowski G, Sewall LM, Nedellec R, Nakao C, Silva M, Richey ST, Torres JL, Lee WH, Georgeson E, Kubitz M, Hodges S, Mullen TM, Adachi Y, Cirelli KM, Kaur A, Allers-Hernandez C, Fahlberg M, Grasperge BF, Dufour JP, Schiro F, Aye PP, Carnathan DG, Silvestri G, Shen X, Montefiori DC, Veazey RS, Ward AB, Hangartner L, Burton DR, Irvine DJ, Schief WR, Crotty S

Now Published: 10.1038/s41586-022-05216-9
bioRxiv Dec. 20, 2021

Structure of the hepatitis C virus E1E2 glycoprotein complex

Torrents de la Peña A, Sliepen K, Eshun-Wilson L, Newby M, Allen JD, Koekkoek S, Zon I, Chumbe A, Crispin M, Schinkel J, Lander GC, Sanders RW, Ward AB

Now Published: 10.1126/science.abn988
bioRxiv Dec. 16, 2021

A public antibody class recognizes a novel S2 epitope exposed on open conformations of SARS-CoV-2 spike

Claireaux M, Caniels TG, de Gast M, Han J, Guerra D, Kerster G, DC van Schaik B, Jongejan A, Schriek AI, Grobben M, JM Brouwer P, van der Straten K, Aldon Y, Capella-Pujol J, Snitselaar JL, Olijhoek W, Aartse A, Brinkkemper M, Bontjer I, Burger JA, Poniman M, PL Bijl T, Torres JL, Copps J, Cuella Martin I, de Taeye SW, de Bree GJ, Ward AB, Sliepen K, HC van Kampen A, Moerland PD, Sanders RW, van Gils MJ

Now Published: 10.1038/s41467-022-32232-0
bioRxiv Dec. 1, 2021

The pre-existing human antibody repertoire to computationally optimized influenza H1 hemagglutinin vaccines

Nagashima K, Dzimianski JV, Han J, Abbadi N, Gingerich AD, Royer F, O’Rourke S, Sautto GA, Ross TM, Ward AB, DuBois RM, Mousa JJ

Now Published: 10.4049/jimmunol.2101171
bioRxiv Oct. 25, 2021

Structural mapping of antibody landscapes to human betacoronavirus spike proteins

Bangaru S, Antanasijevic A, Kose N, Sewall LM, Jackson AM, Suryadevara N, Zhan X, Torres JL, Copps J, Torrents de la Peña A, Crowe JE, Ward AB

Now Published: 10.1126/sciadv.abn2911
bioRxiv Sept. 30, 2021

Structural insights of a highly potent pan-neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 human monoclonal antibody

Torres JL, Ozorowski G, Andreano E, Liu H, Copps J, Piccini G, Donnici L, Conti M, Planchais C, Planas D, Manganaro N, Pantano E, Paciello I, Pileri P, Bruel T, Montomoli E, Mouquet H, Schwartz O, Sala C, De Francesco R, Wilson IA, Rappuoli R, Ward AB

Now Published: 10.1073/pnas.2120976119
bioRxiv Sept. 28, 2021

Targeted isolation of panels of diverse human protective broadly neutralizing antibodies against SARS-like viruses

He WT, Musharrafieh R, Song G, Dueker K, Tse LV, Martinez DR, Schäfer A, Callaghan S, Yong P, Beutler N, Torres JL, Volk RM, Zhou P, Yuan M, Liu H, Anzanello F, Capozzola T, Parren M, Garcia E, Rawlings SA, Smith DM, Wilson IA, Safonova Y, Ward AB, Rogers TF, Baric RS, Gralinski LE, Burton DR, Andrabi R

Now Published: 10.1038/s41590-022-01222-1
bioRxiv Sept. 8, 2021